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Hyola® Hybrid Canola Technical Product Information

Understanding Seedling, Stem and Pod (upper canopy) Blackleg Disease Infections

The Crop emergence coincided with blackleg spore release and wet seasonal conditions, resulting in extreme levels of blackleg leaf lesions in some areas in 2016. However, crown canker severity was much lower than expected given the severe leaf infection.

Upper Canopy Infection (UCI) is the collective term for flower, peduncle, pod, main stem and branch infection but does not include crown canker. In 2016, severe flower and pod infection was present but stem/branch infection was very limited compared to 2014/2015.

2016 data strongly indicates that the risk can be reduced by flowering later in August (not flowering in June/July). A cool moist spring (2016) compared to a hot dry spring (2014-2015) may delay branch infection to post-harvest.

In 2016, infection of pods by blackleg caused significant yield loss by premature loss of pods or reduced seed size.

Early flowering crops are at greater risk of pod infection because they have prolonged exposure to blackleg spores and periods of wet weather during pod development.

Risk of yield loss associated with UCI can be reduced by selecting the correct variety for the sowing date.
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Critical period for yield and quality determination in canola

Despite its global significance as an edible oil and biofuel, the critical period for yield determination in canola
(edible oilseed rape – Brassica napus L.) has not been determined in the field.

Field experiments were conducted at two contrasting sites in southern Australia where 100 °Cd shading periods (15% PAR transmitted) were applied from early vegetative growth until maturity to identify the developmental period when the crop was most sensitive to stress.

Despite the significant difference between the two sites for yield in the unshaded control (450 gm−2 in New South Wales, and 340 gm−2 in South Australia), the critical period was consistent at both sites extending from 100 to 500 °Cd after the start of flowering (BBCH60), and centred 300 °Cd after BBCH60.
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Assessing seed colour change for improved harvest decisions in canola

Industry guidelines for canola windrowing recommend that optimum cutting time occurs when 40– 60% of seeds on the primary stem have changed colour from green to red, brown or black. Likewise, chemical desiccation guidelines are based on seed colour change (SCC).

These preliminary findings indicate that SCC should be measured on a whole plant basis, not the primary stem only, particularly where branches contribute a large proportion of grain yield.

This results suggests that SCC should be measured on a whole plant basis, not solely on the main stem, particularly where branches are likely to contribute a large proportion of potential yield.
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Rotation of Blackleg resistance genes influences fungal populations

Topics in this Presentation:
Resistance groups determined for all commercial cultivars
Identification of avirulence genes and development of DAIs
Genotypic data using the LepR3/Rlm2 alleles correlates with phenotypic data
Molecular analysis of populations supports field data
Preliminary field evidence that rotation of resistance genes works
Not all rotations are equal or behave as expected
Factors influencing the impact of resistance gene rotation
Rotation of resistance genes influences fungal populations and can minimise disease
Monitoring resistance genes in the field/lab and subsequent warnings for industry have been hugely successful
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Pacific Seeds conducts many replicated performance and agronomy trials across Australia each season providing up to date technical information and recommendations for canola growers, consultants, agronomists and industry advisors.

Please click photo pdf links below to access performance and agronomic extension technical information on our Hyola hybrid canola products across the technologies where research has been conducted across the canola growing regions of Australia.
The side-links also provide information from published articles and research papers from across the canola industry from organisations like CSIRO, GRDC, NSW DPI, SARDI, Marcroft Pathology, University of Adelaide, CSU, MSF and BCG.

These industry links to agronomic research and extensions topics will be updated as the latest scientific results and papers are published so that Australian canola growers and advisors get access to the most recent advice and information.

Detection, prevalence and severity of upper canopy blackleg infection

The prevalence and severity of symptoms of upper canopy infection have increased rapidly in all Australian canola producing regions monitored since 2011.

Branch and stem infections can arise independently of other infection types but could also be due to pycnidiospores being washed down the surface of the plant from infected flowers, peduncles or pods. Infection of flowers led to missing pods and abortion of complete flower heads.

Infected branches and upper stems were girdled by lesions, weakened and broken off by strong winds, thereby resulting in complete loss of yield from affected plant parts.

The epidermis and pith was also affected under and around lesions, presumably disrupting water and nutrient flow to the filling grain.

Another factor that may contribute to increased prevalence of upper canopy infection is the effect of management changes on patterns of spore release from crop residues retained to increase moisture retention.
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Optimum Flowering periods for Australian Canola

Recent trends in agronomic practice towards earlier sowing systems highlight the need to better define optimum flowering periods (OFPs) for canola.

We define the OFP as the range of dates in which it is optimal to start flowering to maximise yield.

Crops which flower too early may have insufficient biomass or frost damage, while late flowering increases heat and water stress.

Despite its importance, OFPs for canola have not been comprehensively defined for canola across eastern Australia’s cropping zone, especially for crops sown prior to the traditional sowing window (late April to early May).

Identifying the OFP is a first step to establish appropriate variety by sowing date combinations to optimise yield in different environments.
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Yield Stability & Phenological Research in Canola

Canola show strong GxE interaction in Australian environments.

Different varieties needs to deploy at different environment. Early flowering genotypes for low yield environments and mid‐late flowering for high yield environment.

Breeding for broad adapted canola is possible. Broadly adapted varieties had positive G×E interactions in all environments and therefore produced highest yield across different environments.

Optimal flowering periods are critical for WUE and yield which are ultimately determined by seasonal water availability, temperature, radiation, frost and heat.
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Latest Australian Sclerotinia Disease Research Outcomes

Topics in this presentation:
Long leaf wetness periods are critical for infection to occur
Canola can quickly build up levels of sclerotia
Commencement of flowering is a major driver of disease development
Sclerotinia is slow to develop compared to other diseases
Petal infestation can be found in every canola crop
Timing of application is critical for foliar fungicides

Disease epidemics favoured by continuous wet and humid conditions in the 3 weeks before and after the commencement of bloom
Cultural practices provide limited or no benefit, Fungicide application is the only tool for in-season disease management
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